Banished from Canada: the deportation of de facto citizens
Permanent residence is, short of citizenship, the most secure form of Canadian immigration status: a permanent resident enjoys rights to live, work, and study in Canada and can only be deported in rare and grave circumstances. The most common of those circumstances is criminality. This dissertation looks to answer empirical and conceptual questions about the deportation of permanent residents for criminality: who is deported? For what type of (mis)conduct? What connections do deportees have to Canada and to the place they are being sent? What do these deportations say about how membership in Canadian society is conceived of? A problem of scale drives methodological choices in the deportation space. Hundreds of thousands of people are deported annually from the United States and the EU. Most qualitative research is therefore interview-based, doctrinal, or observational: comprehensive analysis is difficult because there are just too many cases. This study confronts this challenge by focussing on a manageable yet comprehensive dataset. In 2019, approximately 15,000 people were deported from Canada, most after losing a refugee claim. I will study the casefiles of a small subset of that group: the people ordered deported for criminality, despite their permanent resident status.